Energy in France and the world


France opens its natural gas market : What consequences will the 3 January 2003 Act have?

Michèle Rousseau and Bertrand de Singly

The 3 January 2003 act was France’s urgent response for catching up on its EU commitments, since the country was two years overdue in transposing Directive 98/30/CE of 22 June 1998 about opening domestic natural gas markets. This transposition was a necessity since, as in electricity, liberalizing this market should reinforce the competitiveness of French firms and enable them to develop in an increasingly international environment.

Opening the European natural gas market

Pierre-Marie Cussaguet

Five years after the EU’s 1998 directive on opening the natural gas market, the results are more a formality than a reality. The extent to which doors have opened varies widely among member states. A June 2003 EU directive should provide a new framework for more effective actions to boost competition. Member states have to transpose its provisions into national law before 1 July 2004.


National debate about energy sources

Jacques Leloup

In his 3 July 2002 general policy declaration, French Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin announced, “In the field of energy, major public hearings will be started, leading to a bill of law that will officilize an increased role for renewable energy sources and, too, provide a recognized place for nuclear energy.” Nicole Fontaine, the minister of Industry, initiated these hearings during the first quarter of 2003. The bill should be introduced in parliament toward the end of the year.

Energy and climatic change : Within 30 years, divide France’s emissions of greenhouse gases in three

Henri Prévot

Fighting against global warming means cutting down on greenhouse gases. France can significantly reduce its emissions by seriously modifying life-styles without disrupting them. The population will accept this all the better insofar as it is aware of the issues.

Facts and figures in 2002

A section on statistics coordinated by Richard Lavergne and Louis Meuric of the Observatoire de l’Énergie.

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