What are the prospects
for bilateral scientific cooperation ?

Mosaics and a mirror
Claude Trink

 The issues

Scientific cooperation and research faced with the challenges of globalization
Christian Thimonier
It is important for France to maintain its status and keep in stride with the growth of science. New partners are constantly emerging at the global level. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is doing its part.

Bilateral and multilateral scientific cooperation: Not the one without the other
Pierre Paul Baskevitch
Does Europe really need 25 national research policies… along with a few hundred bilateral programs? Maybe not, but it would de unwise to hold the EU responsible for everything.

The seventh Framework Program for Research and Technological Development
Alain Quévreux
The EU’s seventh Framework Program for Research and Technological Development has three pillars: intergovernmental commitments, industrial innovations and research on the frontiers of knowledge. The euro’s success in monetary matters has set an example for this seventh program’s goal of building a European research area, namely: a new planetary equilibrium based on a collective ambition.

International cooperation in the petroleum industry: Ready to wear or tailor made?
Claude Jablon
Given the heavy investments and relatively low level of labor in overall costs, the petroleum industry has preferred specialized partnerships with other developed countries to the big multinational networks developed by labor intensive industries such as electronics or computers.

Cross-sectional arrangements

Integrated projects
Bastian de Laat and Katharina Warta
As an assessment of integrated projects shows, relatively light investments in organizing international mobility between research teams can have quite beneficial consequences by creating relationships both between the teams and between administrations in the concerned countries. A bilateral integrated project often makes the first step toward a European project. A dark spot in this assessment: on the French side, too many actors are involved in management.

The CNRS’s tools for European and international cooperation
Minh‑Hà Pham‑Delègue, Anne d'Albis, Claire Giraud and Jean‑Luc Clément
The French National Center of Scientific Research (CNRS) has geostrategic objectives concerning industrialized as well as emerging countries. It started signing bilateral agreements in the early 1950s, but now prefers implementing programs of coordination via European and international research groups (GDRE and GDRI) and undertaking structural actions, the most advanced example thereof being the international mixed units (UMI).

Ariel, an original tool for international cooperation
Jacques Lévy
For more than twenty years, the Conférence des Grandes Écoles and then Ariel, an association, have spawned and supported approximately 270 projects of international cooperation in research involving partners in industry. Efficient networks have been set up. The majority of these projects concern North America, but Ariel’s interventions in other countries, such as Israel, Sweden, Mexico and Korea, have signaled a significant increase in cooperation.

Examples of bilateral cooperation

The general-purpose association between Sweden and France
Erik Sandewall and Bertil Aronsson
Created in 1967, the Franco‑Swedish Research Association (AFSR), which has taken part in organizing more than 180 events, is helping to develop a reciprocal pollination of scientific and technical research between the two countries. It clearly illustrates the role a bilateral institution can play in globalization.

An association with a sectoral priority between Finland and France
Marie Aronson and Pekka Silvennoinen
For two centuries now, the Finns have played a part in science at the international level. An agreement on cultural and scientific cooperation between France and Finland was signed in 1970. With 32 years of experience, the Franco-Finnish Association for Scientific and Technical Research (AFFRST) has initiated and catalyzed Franco‑Finnish projects and scientific colloquia.

The Franco-Norwegian Foundation for Scientific and Technical Research and Industrial Development
Finn Hvistendahl
Inserts: Claire Tutenuit and Daniel Decroocq

Relations between French and Norwegian industries mainly center on the supply of natural gas from Norway to France. The Franco-Norwegian Foundation for Scientific and Technical Research and Industrial Development (FFN) has the assignment of striking a new balance in relations. Initially revolving around programs related to petroleum, this association is now focusing on small and middle-sized firms and new technologies.

Three tools for of scientific cooperation between France and Italy
Jean-Claude Arditi and Jean Favero
Bilateral scientific cooperation between France and Italy uses three tools: public initiatives (with research programs such as Galileo), the Franco-Italian university (which groups all French and Italian universities) and the Franco-Italian Association for Industrial and Technological Research. Set up in 1988 by the two governments and supported by the public and private sectors, this association seeks to encourage bilateral partnerships in the European context.

CEFIPRA, an exceptional tool for scientific cooperation between India and France
P.S. Mony
Created on 9 September 1987, the Indo‑French Center for the Promotion of Advanced Research (CEFIPRA) backs projects in basic and applied research. The role played by the members of its Scientific Council — from the assessment of a proposal till its final, detailed evaluation with a close follow-up during implementation — has contributed to the quality and efficiency of projects.

The Pasteur‑Weizmann Association, the flagship of scientific cooperation between France and Israel
Michel Goldberg
For the past thirty years, the Pasteur‑Weizmann Association has spawned and supported intense collaboration between the scientists in two prestigious research institutes who are fighting against illness and for the universality of science. How has this association, which is cited worldwide as an example of successful international scientific cooperation, managed to twin institutions in such a lasting and efficient way despite political tensions between France and Israel ?

Is scientific cooperation with China in phase with the changes under way there ?
Jean Dercourt and Claude Trink
The Advanced Research Program (PRA) spurred scientific cooperation between France and China as of 1991. Exchanges of scientists laid the basis for setting up joint laboratories. Nowadays, several French firms (France Télécom, Thomson, Alcatel, Schlumberger, BioMérieux) have set up research centers in China. Given the rapid changes there, are these arrangements for cooperation in phase with the current situation ?

Two case studies of scientific cooperation

Aeronautics, an example of scientific cooperation with Germany
Denis Maugars and Hervé Consigny
The scientific cooperation between French and German national research establishments in aeronautics (Onera and DLR), partners for nearly thirty years now, has constantly made advances. Active support from national administrations, even political authorities, is now indispensable for setting up an authentic European research area in this branch of industry.

French-British cooperation in research related to public environmental policies
Eric Vindimian
Research on the environment is essential to creating the conditions for sustainable development. French and British authorities in charge of public policy in this field want to develop this research. Their cooperation revolves around: an assessment of findings, predictions, and the European coordination of programs.




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