LES ANNALES DES MINES
FOR OUR ENGLISH-SPEAKING
READERS - 2005-III
Energy in France and the world
Energy markets: A glut or shortage?
Although fossil fuels do not risk being exhausted soon, the specter of scarcity is haunting the oil market. This market has fallen victim to a historical shortage of investments and a rising demand that is less elastic than expected. Moreover, higher oil prices seem to have no effect on investment decisions, nor on consumer behavior.Should we resignedly accept prices rising up to one or even two hundred dollars a barrel? And should we passively accept having poor countries pay for the thoughtlessness of wealthy lands?
The contribution of petroleum technology to increasing the world’s oil reserves and supply
Olivier Appert and Jacqueline Lecourtier
To satisfy a growing demand for energy, technological innovation is the key for increasing the reserves and supply of petroleum in the world. We will thus be able to profit from this source of energy for several more decades. And our society will have the time needed to learn how to tap other sources and to make the indispensable transition toward them.
Energy efficiency in France: An international comparison
Major disparities exist between OECD countries in terms of energy efficiency. How does France rank in relation to its principal partners? The answer depends on the type of indicator. Macroeconomic indicators can serve as the grounds for introducing incentives to improve the marginal efficiency in an industry or sector; but they are of little use in a country, like the United States, characterized by a structural lack of efficiency in energy consumption. Recent technicoeconomic indicators shed more light on the savings made or to be made in energy consumption.
Controlling energy and the fight against climatic change: What consequences for R&D?
After a decline since the early 1990s, R&D in the field of energy is now making advances along the path to “sustainable development”. Research is focusing on four poles: reducing the need for energy; improving the modes of production and developing new ones; and working out a global conception that takes into account all the elements in a system.
Facts and figures in 2004
Statistics, a section coordinated by Richard Lavergne and Louis Meuric, Observatoire de l'Énergie.